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1.2 Introduction to Internet Infrastructure

by Jack Goldsmith and a Berkman Center Cybersecurity Team Show/Hide
Purpose: Provide an overview of network infrastructure, elements, and architecture philosophy. EDIT PLAYLIST INFORMATION DELETE PLAYLIST

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  1. 1 Show/Hide More 1.2.1 Architecture Philosophy
    Original Creator: Jack Goldsmith and a Berkman Center Cybersecurity Team
    Many of the current security and vulnerability concerns associated with the Internet are the product of deliberate design philosophy and choices regarding functionality that characterized the early days of the Internet.
    1. 1.1 Show/Hide More David Clark, The Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols, ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 1988
      Journal Article, 8pg. This paper captures some of the early reasoning which shaped the Internet protocol suite, TCP/IP, when it was first developed by DARPA.
    2. 1.2 Show/Hide More Lawrence Lessig, Code 2.0, Ch. 4: Architectures of Control, 2006
      This chapter demonstrates how the architecture of the Internet shapes the way we use it and the possibilities of regulation—code is law. The original design was not concerned with control and pushed complexity to the edges of the network. The trade-off between security, control, privacy, and connectivity is decided, to a certain extent, at the architecture level.
    3. 1.3 Show/Hide More David G. Post, In Search of Jefferson’s Moose, Ch. 1: Chaos, 2009
      This book provides a conceptual framework through which newcomers can begin investigating the cyber-frontier. Rather than providing a technical understanding of the elements of the network, it poses some critical questions for understanding how cyberspace works and who makes the rules in cyberspace. This set of questions provides a useful framework to keep in mind while diving into the more technical sections.
  2. 2 Show/Hide More 1.2.2 Elements of the Network (ISPs, Routers, Protocols and packets view)
    Original Creator: Jack Goldsmith and a Berkman Center Cybersecurity Team
    This sub-section provides an overview on the network, the protocols it employs to transfer data, and the various ways computers connect to the Internet. Its purpose is to consider the different domains of cyberspace—systems, applications, and human—and provide an “under-the-hood” understanding of how they interact.
    1. 2.1 Show/Hide More David Clark, An Insider’s Guide to the Internet, 2004
      An overview of how the Internet works and why it works the way it does. It provides both a technical introduction and covers some of the design principles that guided the Internet’s initial architecture. The conclusion outlines some implications for policy makers resulting from design: different types of service providers cannot always see the parts of the information that is not relevant to them. That is, an ISP cannot always see the higher level information in the packets (for example, it may be encrypted.); the higher-level service provider (a Web server, for example) cannot see the routing information in the routers, and cannot determine what the topology and capacity of the Internet is. This article also includes a glossary with key terms.
    2. 2.2 Show/Hide More Elihu Zimet and Edward Skoudis, Cyberpower and National Security, Ch. 4: A Graphical Introduction to the Structural Elements of Cyberspace, eds. Kramer, Starr, and Wentz, 2009
      A graphical snapshot of the technological infrastructure, from routers to packets. This chapter provides a more conceptual understanding of the network and the transfer of data.
      Please note, there is a lot of overlap with the first section of Gralla’s <i>How the Internet Works</i>
    3. 2.3 Show/Hide More Preston Gralla, How the Internet Works, Ch. 1-10, 8th edition, 2007
      A technical, yet accessible illustrated overview of the main building blocks and connection types. The first section, Understanding the Internet’s Underlying Architecture, provides an overview of the Internet, and examines fundamental architectures, protocols, and general concepts. The second section, Connecting to the Internet, looks at the various ways computers can connect to the Internet, and has not been covered by other readings listed in this section. The main takeaway from this introduction is that connecting to the Internet will become increasingly easy—and will occur at increasingly higher speeds.
      For users on the Harvard network: available as an e-textbook through <a href="http://www.google.com/url?q=http%3A%2F%2Fproquest.safaribooksonline.com.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu%2F0789736268%3Fuicode%3Dharvard&amp;sa=D&amp;sntz=1&amp;usg=AFQjCNF1M5MplTOw-aODoX16jxKox7Z8nQ">Hollis</a>.
    1. 3.1 Show/Hide More 1.2.3.a Cables
      Original Creator: Jack Goldsmith and a Berkman Center Cybersecurity Team
      About 99 percent of Internet traffic travels through undersea cables maintained by private providers. Securing and monitoring the cables raises questions regarding private/public cost-burden, territoriality, and international cooperation.
      1. 3.1.1 Show/Hide More Global Bandwidth Research Service, TeleGeography Submarine Cable Map, 2011
        This interactive map depicts active and planned submarine cable systems and their landing stations. It includes ownership data for each cable listed.
      1. 3.2.1 Show/Hide More Dave Lee, Sky-high Thinking for African Internet, BBC, Aug 6, 2012
        Satellite-powered broadband could be the answer to Africa's connectivity conundrum.
      2. 3.2.2 Show/Hide More BBC, Lybia Jamming ‘exposed Vulnerability’, Jan 13, 2006
        An incident involving Libya blocking a dissident radio station late last year highlighted the potentially devastating consequences of relying too much on satellites, a British MP has warned.
    2. 3.3 Show/Hide More 1.2.3.c Wireless Networks
      Original Creator: Jack Goldsmith and a Berkman Center Cybersecurity Team
      A variety of wireless technologies have been standardized and commercialized, but no single technology is considered the best because of different coverage and bandwidth limitations.
    1. 4.1 Show/Hide More 1.2.4.a Encryption (public and private keys, hash functions)
      Original Creator: Jack Goldsmith and a Berkman Center Cybersecurity Team
      Public key cryptography enables encryption and decryption of data transferred between two parties, the authentication of data’s origin, and indication of data tampering.
      1. 4.1.1 Show/Hide More Steven Levy, Crypto Ch. 3: Public Key, 2001
        This book traces the history of modern cryptography and how it transferred from being a tool employed by governments to a public service designed and consumed by private actors. Chapter 3 describes how researchers sought to answer the following question: how can you create a system where people who have never met can speak securely? The answer is a one-way authentication system, now popularized as public and private keys.
      2. 4.1.2 Show/Hide More Introduction to Public-Key Cryptography, Mozilla Developer Network, 2005
        Public-key cryptography and related standards and techniques underlie many commonly used security features, including signed and encrypted email, form signing, object signing, single sign-on, and the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol. This document introduces the basic concepts of public-key cryptography.
      3. 4.1.3 Show/Hide More D. Richard Kuhn et al., Introduction to Public Key Technology and the Federal PKI Infrastructure, NIST, 2001
        This detailed report provides an overview of Public Key Infrastructures functions and their potential applications as authentication technologies within federal agencies.
    2. 4.2 Show/Hide More 1.2.4.b SSL Certificates
      Original Creator: Jack Goldsmith and a Berkman Center Cybersecurity Team
      Many of the online authentication mechanisms that enable transactions rely on faith in the Secure Sockets Layer protocol and Certificate Authorities. Growing evidence suggests that this mechanism is highly vulnerable, and there has been much discussion surrounding alternatives.
      1. 4.2.1 Show/Hide More Introduction to SSL, Mozilla Developer Network, 2005
        The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol has been universally accepted on the World Wide Web for authenticated and encrypted communication between clients and servers. This article introduces key concepts and also touches upon potential threats such as Man-in-the-Middle Attacks.
      2. 4.2.2 Show/Hide More 1.2.4.b.ii Moxie Marlinspike on SSL and Authenticity
        Original Creator: Jack Goldsmith and a Berkman Center Cybersecurity Team
        Marlinspike has released several follow-up materials which are useful for an updated view of the ongoing debate.
        1. Show/Hide More Moxie Marlinspike, BlackHat USA 2011: SSL and the Future of Authenticity, 2011
          A talk given as a follow-up to the blog post above, recommended viewing: 0:00-23:34.
        2. Show/Hide More Moxie Marlinspike, New Tricks For Defeating SSL In Practice, BlackHat DC, 2009
          Slides demonstrating some uncovered weaknesses of SSL.
        3. Show/Hide More Moxie Marlinspike, SSL and the Future of Authenticity, Thoughtcrime Blog, 2011
          This brief blog post defines the core issues with the Certificate Authorities mechanism SSL relies on, primarily via the missing quality of trust agility; it also critically examines suggested alternatives such as DNSSEC.
      3. 4.2.3 Show/Hide More Gregg Keizer, Hackers Stole Google SSL Certificate, Dutch Firm Admits, Computerworld, Aug 30, 2011
        This article demonstrates some of the potential issues with exploiting SSL weaknesses.

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June 03, 2014

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