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2.2 Characteristics of the Cyber Problem

by Jack Goldsmith and a Berkman Center Cybersecurity Team Show/Hide
    1. 1.1 Show/Hide More Richard Clarke and Robert Knake, Cyber War: The next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It, 2010
      Cyber War goes behind the “geek talk” of hackers and computer scientists to explain clearly and convincingly what cyber war is, how cyber weapons work, and how vulnerable we are as a nation and as individuals to the vast and looming web of cyber criminals.
    2. 1.2 Show/Hide More Jack Goldsmith, The New Vulnerability, The New Republic, Jun 7, 2010
      A review of Richard Clarke’s book, provides some counter-balance to the threat Clarke outlines and the underlying assumption of his book, that US activities are abroad are legitimate, while adversaries are acting illegally.
    3. 1.3 Show/Hide More Joel Brenner, America the Vulnerable: Inside the New Matrix of Digital Espionage, Crime, and Warfare, 2011
      This book begins by describing how electronic data has become “ambient”— all electronic activities are aggregated as data, behavior patterns are identified, and the resulting information is used per the needs of whoever has the data. Brenner argues that the most vulnerable part of any network is the user, however particular attention is also given to operational infrastructure systems.
    4. 1.6 Show/Hide More Peter Maass and Megha Rajagopalan, Does Cybercrime Really Cost $1Trillion?, Mother Jones, Aug 2, 2012
      Security software companies Symantec and McAfee are touting inflated cybercrime numbers—no doubt good for business.
    5. 1.7 Show/Hide More Julie J.C.H. Ryan and Theresa I. Jefferson, The Use, Misuse, and Abuse of Statistics in Information Security Research, Management National Conference, ASEM 2003.
      Survey data on information security trends and concerns are used to justify increased expenditures on security tools and technologies.
    1. 2.1 Show/Hide More Jack Goldsmith, The New Vulnerability, The New Republic, Jun 7, 2010
      A review of Richard Clarke’s book, provides some counter-balance to the threat Clarke outlines and the underlying assumption of his book, that US activities are abroad are legitimate, while adversaries are acting illegally.
      1. 2.2.1 Show/Hide More Seymour E. Goodman and Herbert S. Lin, Toward a Safer and More Secure Cyberspace, Ch. 6.4: The Economics of Cybersecurity, National Research Council, 2007, pp. 142-165
        This section provides an economic perspective on why cybersecurity is hard and on why (if at all) there is underinvestment in cybersecurity.
      2. 2.2.2 Show/Hide More Tyler Moore, Introducing the Economics of Cybersecurity: Principles and Policy Options, Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring CyberAttacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy, 2010
        This paper outlines the various economic challenges plaguing cybersecurity: misaligned incentives, information asymmetries, and externalities.
      1. 3.1.1 Show/Hide More David Clark and Susan Landau, Untangling Attribution, Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring CyberAttacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy, 2010.
        Attribution on the Internet can mean the owner of the machine, the physical location of the machine, or the individual who is actually responsible for the actions. This paper teases apart the attribution problems in order to determine under which circumstances which types of attribution would actually be useful.
      1. 3.2.1 Show/Hide More Martin C. Libicki, Cyberdeterrence and Cyberwar: Ch. 3: Why Cyberdeterrence is Different , RAND, 2009
        This chapter discusses cyberdeterrence and explains its profound difference from nuclear deterrence. It argues that because cyberspace is so different a medium, the concepts of deterrence and war may simply lack the logical foundations that they have in the nuclear and conventional realms.
      2. 3.2.2 Show/Hide More Kugler, Richard L., Cyberpower and National Security, Ch. 13: Deterrence of Cyber Attacks, eds. Kramer, Starr, and Wentz, 2009
        This chapter rejects the view that the “attribution problem” paralyzes any attempt to develop a cyber deterrence strategy. It focuses on cases in which an adversary will make itself known because a cyber threat is posed to advance a different political goal.
    1. 3.3 Show/Hide More 2.2.3.c Metrics
      Original Creator: Jack Goldsmith and a Berkman Center Cybersecurity Team
      In the absence of good cybersecurity metrics, it is largely impossible to quantify cost-benefit trade-offs in implementing security features. Even worse, it is very difficult if not impossible to determine if System A is more secure than System B.
      1. 3.3.1 Show/Hide More Seymour E. Goodman and Herbert S. Lin, Toward a Safer and More Secure Cyberspace, Ch. 6.3: Cybersecurity Metrics, National Research Council, 2007, pp. 133-142
        This section reviews various approaches to develop a cybersecurity metrics and concludes by calling for further research in the field.
      1. 3.4.1 Show/Hide More Misha Glenny, A Weapon We Can’t Control, NYTimes, Jun 25, 2012
        In this brief op-ed Glenny argues that the decision to deploy Stuxnet marked a dangerous turn in teh militarization of the Internet.
      1. 4.1.1 Show/Hide More Business Software Alliance, Center for Democracy & Technology, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Internet Security Alliance, Tech America, Improving our Nation’s Cybersecurity through the Public-Private Partnership: a White Paper, Mar 8, 2011
        This paper considers public-private partnerships related to the protection of critical infrastructure. It recommends expanding on existing partnerships in the following areas: risk management, incident management, information sharing and privacy, international engagement, supply chain security, innovation and research and development, and education and awareness.
      2. 4.1.2 Show/Hide More Paul Rosenzweig, Cyber Security and Public Goods: The Public/Private “Partnership”, Hoover Institution, 2011
        This article reviews the partnership between Google and the NSA. It argues that the national government cannot be exclusively responsible for providing national cybersecurity. By establishing first economic principles it argues that the main domain in which government action is effective and desirable is that of fostering the sharing of cybersecurity information.
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May 21, 2013

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