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2.2.3 Difficulties Inherent to Cyber Domain
1 2.2.3.a Attribution
1.1 David Clark and Susan Landau, Untangling Attribution, Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring CyberAttacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy, 2010.
Attribution on the Internet can mean the owner of the machine, the physical location of the machine, or the individual who is actually responsible for the actions. This paper teases apart the attribution problems in order to determine under which circumstances which types of attribution would actually be useful.
2 2.2.3.b Deterrence
2.1 Martin C. Libicki, Cyberdeterrence and Cyberwar: Ch. 3: Why Cyberdeterrence is Different , RAND, 2009
This chapter discusses cyberdeterrence and explains its profound difference from nuclear deterrence. It argues that because cyberspace is so different a medium, the concepts of deterrence and war may simply lack the logical foundations that they have in the nuclear and conventional realms.
2.2 Kugler, Richard L., Cyberpower and National Security, Ch. 13: Deterrence of Cyber Attacks, eds. Kramer, Starr, and Wentz, 2009
This chapter rejects the view that the “attribution problem” paralyzes any attempt to develop a cyber deterrence strategy. It focuses on cases in which an adversary will make itself known because a cyber threat is posed to advance a different political goal.
3 2.2.3.c Metrics
In the absence of good cybersecurity metrics, it is largely impossible to quantify cost-benefit trade-offs in implementing security features. Even worse, it is very difficult if not impossible to determine if System A is more secure than System B.
4 2.2.3.d Ability to Predict/Control Effects
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