A domain name has the function to point to a series of four sets of numbers in which each number can be between 1 and three numbers, this is what is known as an IP.
The IP is used to find resources in the network of networks, such as accommodation.
1. To acquire domains serving
The reason why general domains are acquired is the fact that it is quite very difficult to recall an IP, since as mentioned can before have up to twelve numbers and human we find it easier to recall words than numbers.
For example: It is simpler to remember that Google.com hundred seventy tres.194.41.9 and if you type both in the browser appears exactly the same page.
2. What is an IP
An IP is a series of four numbers that in every series may contain a value between 0 and two hundred fifty five, this identifies a server on the network or rather a web hosting company line ADSL is provided by the IPs.
Eye, do not confuse the public IP (of which I speak) with private IP, setting up a private IP only affects your family network, the only way to change the public IP is to reboot the router in the case of active IP.
IPs march as if they were mobile phones can not have two equal or none of them will not work.
You can identify the country and even a city through an IP locator, by the fact that as a rule are assigned a series of numbers for each country and city.
3. As pointed domains to IP
This already sounded like something else, to link a domain to an IP servers used domain names, known as DNS, each company has their own phone.
DNS servers are responsible for solving where points each domain, if you have a problem with any of them you will not be able to access any Web for almost all use the domain, this is something strange happens as a rule the computer set 2 servers and if one fails the other acts.
4. So how domains march?
After all this explanation at least should have stayed clear that what makes a domain is point to an IP of a server on the network of networks and that this is done thanks to the DNS.
When you type a domain there are some more processes, but I do not think it necessary to comment on you because with these four words that I have written, if you want more information about domains have information on Wikipedia for example.