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Americans spend more than $1 trillion on food each year, nearly half of it in restaurants, schools, and other places outside the home.1 Federal laws give food manufacturers, distributors, and retailers the basic responsibility for assuring that foods are wholesome, safe, and handled under sanitary conditions. A number of federal agencies, cooperating with state, local, and international entities, play a major role in regulating food quality and safety under these laws.
The combined efforts of the food industry and the regulatory agencies often are credited with making the U.S. food supply among the safest in the world. Nonetheless, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that each year an estimated one in six Americans—a total of 48 million people—becomes sick from contaminated food foodborne illnesses caused by contamination from any one of a number of microbial pathogens.2 Of these, an estimated 128,000 cases require hospitalization and 3,000 cases result in death. In addition, experts have cited numerous other hazards to health, including the use of unapproved veterinary drugs, pesticides, and other dangerous substances in food commodities, of particular concern at a time when a growing share of the U.S. food supply is from overseas sources. These concerns, combined with the ongoing recurrence of major food safety-related incidents, have heightened public and media scrutiny of the U.S. food safety system and magnified congressional interest in the issue.
Numerous federal, state, and local agencies share responsibilities for regulating the safety of the U.S. food supply. Federal responsibility for food safety rests primarily with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), which is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). FDA is responsible for ensuring that all domestic and imported food products—except for most meats and poultry—are safe, nutritious, wholesome, and accurately labeled. FDA also has oversight of all seafood, fish, and shellfish products. USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) regulates most meat and poultry and some egg and fish products.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) has identified as many as 15 federal agencies, including FDA and FSIS, as collectively administering at least 30 laws related to food safety.*** State and local food safety authorities collaborate with federal agencies for inspection and other food safety functions, and they regulate retail food establishments. This organizational complexity, and trends in U.S. food markets—for example, increasing imports as a share of U.S. food consumption and increasing consumption of fresh, often unprocessed, foods— pose ongoing challenges to ensuring food safety.
The division of food safety responsibility between FDA and USDA is rooted in the early history of U.S. food regulation. Congress created separate statutory frameworks when it enacted, in 1906, both the Pure Food and Drugs Act and the Meat Inspection Act. The former addressed the widespread marketing of intentionally adulterated foods, and its implementation was assigned to USDA’s Bureau of Chemistry. The latter law addressed unsafe and unsanitary conditions in meat packing plants, and implementation was assigned to the USDA’s Bureau of Animal Industry. This bifurcated system has been perpetuated and split further into additional food safety activities under additional agencies (for example, the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Marine Fisheries Service, and others) by a succession of statutes and executive directives. The separation of the two major food safety agencies was further reinforced when, in 1940, the President moved responsibilities for safe foods and drugs, other than meat and poultry, from USDA to the progenitor of HHS, the Federal Security Agency. Meat inspection remained in USDA. There has been discussion over time regarding whether this dispersal of food safety responsibilities has been problematic, or whether a reorganization would divert time and attention from other fundamental problems in the system. * * *
Over the years, GAO has published a series of reports highlighting how food safety oversight in the United States is fragmented and recommending broad restructuring of the nation’s food safety system. These GAO reports document examples where a number of federal agencies are responsible for some aspect of food safety or product quality, resulting in split agency jurisdiction for some foods. Limited coordination and sharing of information results in often overlapping and/or duplication of efforts. Similar observations are noted in a series of food safety studies by the National Research Council (NRC) and Institute of Medicine (IOM).6 The NRC/IOM studies further recommend that the core federal food safety responsibilities should reside within a single entity/agency; have a unified administrative structure, clear mandate, and dedicated budget; and maintain full responsibility for oversight of the entire U.S. food supply.
FDA has primary responsibility for the safety of most (about 80%-90%) of all U.S. domestic and imported foods.7 The FDA is responsible for ensuring that all domestic and imported food products—except for most meats and poultry—are safe, nutritious, wholesome, and accurately labeled. Examples of FDA-regulated foods are produce, dairy products, and processed foods. FDA also has oversight of all seafood and shellfish products, and most fish products (except for catfish). FDA has jurisdiction over meats from animals or birds that are not under the regulatory jurisdiction of FSIS. FDA shares some responsibility for the safety of eggs with FSIS. FDA has jurisdiction over establishments that sell or serve eggs or use them as an ingredient in their products.
As described in a memorandum of understanding between FDA and FSIS:
FDA is responsible for implementing and enforcing the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301, et seq.), the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 201, et seq.), the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (15 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.), and parts of the Egg Products Inspection Act [21 U.S.C. §§1031 et seq.]. In carrying out its responsibilities under these acts, FDA conducts inspections of establishments that manufacture, process, pack, or hold foods, with the exception of certain establishments that are regulated exclusively by FSIS. FDA also inspects vehicles and other conveyances, such as boats, trains, and airplanes, in which foods are transported or held in interstate commerce.
In addition, the 111th Congress passed comprehensive food safety legislation with the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA, P.L. 111-353), amending the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). FSMA was the largest expansion of FDA’s food safety authorities since the 1930s.10 FSMA did not directly address meat and poultry products under USDA’s jurisdiction. New rules governing FDA’s food inspection regime of both domestic and imported foods under the agency’s jurisdiction are now being implemented. For more information, see CRS Report R43724, Implementation of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA, P.L. 111-353).
In the Washington, DC, area, two FDA offices are the focal point for food safety-related activities. The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) is responsible for
(1) conducting and supporting food safety research; (2) developing and overseeing enforcement of food safety and quality regulations; (3) coordinating and evaluating FDA’s food surveillance and compliance programs; (4) coordinating and evaluating cooperating states’ food safety activities; and (5) developing and disseminating food safety and regulatory information to consumers and industry. FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) is responsible for ensuring that all animal drugs, feeds (including pet foods), and veterinary devices are safe for animals, are properly labeled, and produce no human health hazards when used in food-producing animals.
The FDA also cooperates with over 400 state agencies across the nation to carry out a wide range of food safety regulatory activities. However, the state agencies are primarily responsible for actual inspection. FDA works with the states to set the safety standards for food establishments and commodities and evaluates the states’ performance in upholding such standards as well as any federal standards that may apply. FDA also contracts with states to use their food safety agency personnel to carry out certain field inspections in support of FDA’s own statutory responsibilities.
FSIS regulates the safety, wholesomeness, and proper labeling of most domestic and imported meat and poultry and their products sold for human consumption, comprising roughly 10%-20% of the U.S. food supply.11 As described in a memorandum of understanding between FDA and FSIS, FSIS’s jurisdiction is as follows:
FSIS is responsible for implementing and enforcing the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601, et seq.), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451, et seq.), and parts of the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031, et seq.). In carrying out its responsibilities under these acts, FSIS places inspectors in meat and poultry slaughterhouses and in meat, poultry, and egg processing plants. FSIS also conducts inspections of warehouses, transporters, retail stores, restaurants, and other places where meat, poultry, and egg products are handled and stored. In addition, FSIS conducts voluntary inspections under the Agriculture Marketing Act (7 U.S.C. 1621, et seq.).
The Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) of 1906, as amended, requires USDA to inspect all cattle, sheep, swine, goats, horses, mules, and other equines slaughtered and processed for human consumption. The Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA) of 1957, as amended, gives USDA the authority to inspect poultry meat. The PPIA mandates USDA inspection of any domesticated birds (chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, guineas, ratites [ostrich, emu, and rhea], and squab (pigeons up to one month old]) intended for use as human food. The Egg Products Inspection Act, as amended, provides USDA authority to inspect liquid, frozen, and dried egg products. Each of these laws contains provisions governing USDA’s authority to label food products under its jurisdiction.
Under the authority of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 as amended, USDA’s FSIS may provide voluntary inspection for buffalo, antelope, reindeer, elk, migratory waterfowl, game birds, and rabbits. This type of inspection is performed by FSIS on a fee-for-service basis. However, these meat and poultry species are still within the purview of FDA under FFDCA, whether or not inspected under the voluntary FSIS program. FDA has jurisdiction over meat products from such species in interstate commerce, even if they bear the USDA inspection mark. FDA also has jurisdiction over shell eggs. In addition, the 2008 farm bill requires that FSIS inspect and grade farmed catfish products.
Meat and poultry animals and products undergo continuous (i.e., 100%) inspection, which may in turn act as a deterrent to fraud in some cases. FSIS inspects all meat and poultry animals to look for signs of disease, contamination, and other abnormal conditions, both before and after slaughter (“antemortem” and “postmortem,” respectively), on a continuous basis—meaning that no animal may be slaughtered and dressed unless an inspector has examined it. One or more federal inspectors are on the line during all hours the plant is operating. Processing plants visited once every day by an FSIS inspector are considered to be under continuous inspection in keeping with the laws. Inspectors monitor operations, check sanitary conditions, examine ingredient levels and packaging, review records, verify food safety plans, and conduct statistical sampling and testing of products for pathogens and residues during their inspections.
FSIS is responsible for certifying that foreign meat and poultry plants are operating under an inspection system equivalent to the U.S. system before they can export their product to the United States. Meat and poultry imports are 100% visually inspected (process-based, documentation, labeling), although physical inspections of imports may be more random. FSIS conducts evaluations of foreign meat safety programs and visits establishments to determine whether they are providing a level of safety equivalent to that of U.S. safeguards. No foreign plant can ship meat or poultry to the United States unless its country has received such an FSIS determination.
Twenty-seven states operate their own meat and/or poultry inspection programs. FSIS is statutorily responsible for ensuring that the states’ programs are at least equal to the federal program. Plants processing meat and poultry under state inspection can market their products only within the state. If a state chooses to discontinue its own inspection program, or if FSIS determines that it does not meet the agency’s equivalency standards, FSIS must assume the responsibility for inspection if the formerly state-inspected plants are to remain in operation. FSIS also has cooperative agreements with more than two dozen states under which state inspection personnel are authorized to carry out federal inspection in meat and/or poultry plants. Products from these plants may travel in interstate commerce. * * *
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